.htaccess tutorial

Guys today we will see what is .htaccess and why for it is used effectively…

What is .htaccess??

You may have been working on a website, or reading an article about web development, and heard about the .htaccess file, but wondered what it was, or what, if anything, you can do with it. This tutorial will tell you the basics about .htaccess, and show you a few ways you can use it on your website.

Before we go any farther, let’s explain what the .htaccess file is. htaccess is short for Hypertext Access, and is a configuration file used by Apache-based web servers that controls the directory that it “lives” in–as well as all the subdirectories underneath that directory.

Many times, if you have installed a Content Management System (CMS), such as Drupal, Joomla or WordPress, you likely encountered the .htaccess file. You may not have even had to edit it, but it was among the files that you uploaded to your web server. BTW, that’s its name, .htaccess–it begins with a period, and ends with “htaccess”. If you edit it, you need to make sure that it stays that way, and doesn’t end up with a .txt or .html extension.

Also note that some web hosts do not allow you to edit the .htaccess file–but even on most of those hosts, you can create your own .htaccess file and upload it to specific directories, and as discussed above, it will control those directories and subdirectories below it. Now lets see the features and usage of it clearly by following the tutorial.

More on htaccess

In this tutorial you will find out about the .htaccess file and the power it has to improve your website. HostMonster supports .htaccess files however as a customer you are responsible for what is in this file and how it changes your site.


  • Creating a .htaccess File
  • Alternative Index Files
  • Custom Error Pages
  • Stop a Directory Index From Being Shown
  • Deny/Allow Certain IP Addresses
  • Redirection
  • Password Protection

 

Creating a .htaccess File

You can create a .htaccess file on your local computer or on the server.

On your computer:

Windows: Using Notepad save the file as .htaccess

Mac OS X: Using TextEdit save the file as “.htaccess”
Note: If you save the file as .htaccess it will be hidden and you will not be able to see it in the Finder.Using your preferred FTP client upload the file to the server. The .htaccess file will need to be in the folder where your site is located, typically the public_html folder.

On the server

  1. Login to your cPanel Account
  2. Click the File Manager icon, located in the Files section.
  3. From the File Manger popup choose “Choose Hidden Files (dotfiles).”
    Note: If you do not see this popup you will need to click the “reset all interface settings” link at the bottom of the cPanel page.
  4. From the File Manager popup choose the folder you would like to open, most often the “Web Root (public_html/www)”
  5. Click the Go button.
    Note: If you are in the File Manager already you can add &showhidden=1 to the end of the URL.
  6. Click the New File icon to create a new file and name it .htaccess

Alternative Index Files

You may not always want to use index.htm or index.html as your index file for a directory, for example if you are using PHP files in your site, you may want index.php to be the index file for a directory. You are not limited to ‘index’ files though. Using .htaccess you can set foofoo.blah to be your index file if you want to!

Alternate index files are entered in a list. The server will work from left to right, checking to see if each file exists, if none of them exist it will display a directory listing (unless, of course, you have turned this off).

 

DirectoryIndex index.php index.php3 messagebrd.pl index.html index.htm

 

Custom Error Pages

You can customize your own, personal error pages (for example when a file is not found) instead of using HostMonster’s error pages or not having an error page. This will make your site seem much more professional.

You can use custom error pages for any error as long as you know its number (like 404 for page not found) by adding the following to your .htaccess file:

ErrorDocument errornumber /file.html

For example if I had the file notfound.html in the root directory of my site and I wanted to use it for a 404 error I would use:

ErrorDocument 404 /notfound.html

If the error page is not in the root directory of your site, you can enter the path to the file:

ErrorDocument 500 /errorpages/500.html

These are some of the most common errors:

        401 - Authorization Required
        400 - Bad request
        403 - Forbidden
        500 - Internal Server Error
        404 - Wrong page

Stop a Directory Index From Being Shown

Sometimes, for one reason or another, you will have no index file in your directory. This will, of course, mean that if someone types the directory name into their browser, a full listing of all the files in that directory will be shown. This could be a security risk for your site.

To prevent against this (without creating lots of new ‘index’ files, you can enter a command into your .htaccess file to stop the directory list from being shown:

# disable directory browsing
        
        Options ExecCGI Includes IncludesNOEXEC SymLinksIfOwnerMatch -Indexes
        
        # enable directory browsing
        Options All +Indexes

Deny/Allow Certain IP Addresses

To only allow people with specific IP addresses to access your site (for example, only allowing people using a particular network to get into a certain directory) or you may want to ban certain IP addresses (for example, keeping disruptive members out of your message boards).This will only work if you know the IP addresses you would like to ban.

Please keep in mind that most ISP’s use dynamic IP addresses, so this is not always the best way to limit/grant access.

 

Block an IP Address

#Deny List
        
        order allow,deny
        deny from 123.123.123.123 #specify a specific address
        deny from 123.123.123.123/30 #specify a subnet range
        deny from 123.123.* #specify an IP address wildcard
        allow from all

Allow an IP address

#Allow List
        
        order allow,deny
        allow from 123.123.123.123 #specify a specific address
        allow from 123.123.123.123/30 #specify a subnet range
        allow from 123.123.* #specify an IP address wildcard
        deny from all
        

Note: This will still allow scripts to use the files in the directory.

Redirection

There is a tool in the cPanel that can create the Redirects for you, please see How to create a Redirect

Redirect from a specific file to a new file

Example:

Redirect /redirect_from.html http://www.newsite.com/folder/redirect_to.html

In the above example, a file in the root directory called redirect_example.html is redirected to the URL http://www.newsite.com/folder/redirect_example.html
If the old file were in a subdirectory then you could use:

/subdirectory/redirect_from.html

WildCard Redirect / Redirecting from one folder to a new folder

Redirect /redirect_from http://www.newsite.com/redirect_to

Now any request to your site below /olddirectory will be redirected to the new site, with the extra information in the URL added on, for example if someone typed in:

http://www.example.com/redirect_from/images/image.gif

They would be redirected to:

http://www.newsite.com/redirect_to/images/image.gif

Redirecting (URL Rewriting) with Joomla

To enable URL Rewriting in Joomla you will need to copy and paste the following code into your .htaccess file.

        # For security reasons, Option followsymlinks cannot be overridden.
        #Options +FollowSymLinks
        Options +SymLinksIfOwnerMatch

Password Protection

One of the many uses of the .htaccess is being able to reliably password protect directories on websites.
Note: If you would like to use the cPanel tool to password protect your folders please see our article: Password Protect a folder on your website

The .htaccess File

Adding password protection to a directory using .htaccess takes two stages. The first part is to add the appropriate lines to your .htaccess file in the directory you would like to protect. Everything below this directory will be password protected:

AuthName "Section Name"
        AuthType Basic
        AuthUserFile /home/username/.htpasswds
        Require valid-user 

There are a few parts of this which you will need to change for your site. You should replace “Section Name” with the name of the part of the site you are protecting e.g. “Members Area”.

The /home/username/.htpasswds should be changed to reflect the full server path to the .htpasswds file (more on this later). If you do not know what the full path to your webspace is, check your HostMonster cPanel. Look on the left “stats” column of the cPanel.

The .htpasswds File

Password protecting a directory takes a little more work than any of the other .htaccess functions because you must also create a file to contain the usernames and passwords which are allowed to access the site. These should be placed in a file which (by default) should be called .htpasswd. This can be placed anywhere within you website (as the passwords are encrypted) but it is advisable to store it outside the web root (in your home directory) so that it is impossible to access it from the web.

Entering Usernames And Passwords

Once you have created your .htpasswd file (you can do this in a standard text editor) you must enter the usernames and passwords to access the site. They should be entered as follows:

username:password

Where the password is the encrypted format of the password. There is a good username/password service at the KxS site which will allow you to enter the username and password and will output it in the correct format.

For multiple users, just add extra lines to your .htpasswd file in the same format as the first.

Accessing The Site

When you try to access a site which has been protected by .htaccess your browser will pop up a standard username/password dialog box. Alternatively you can send the username and password (unencrypted) in the URL as follows:

        http://username:password@www.website.com/directory/ 

Soruce: https://my.hostmonster.com/cgi/help/htaccess

MAC OS Keyboard shortcuts

OS X keyboard shortcuts

A keyboard shortcut is a way to invoke a function in OS X by pressing a combination of keys on your keyboard. Learn about common OS X keyboard shortcuts.

To use a keyboard shortcut you press a modifier key with a character key. For example, pressing the Command key (it has a  symbol#in windows its windows symbol) and then the “c” key copies whatever is currently selected (text, graphics, and so forth) into the Clipboard. This is also known as the Command-C keyboard shortcut.

A modifier key is a part of many keyboard shortcuts. A modifier key alters the way other keystrokes or mouse/trackpad clicks are interpreted by OS X. Modifier keys include: Command, Shift, Option, Control, Caps Lock, and the Fn key. You may need to use the Fn key in some of the key combinations listed below. For example, if the keyboard shortcut is Control-F2, press Fn-Control-F2.

Here are the modifier key symbols you may see in OS X menus:

Command key/ windows keyboard-windows symbol
Control key
Option key
Shift Key
Caps Lock
Fn Function Key

Startup shortcuts

Press the key or key combination until the expected function occurs/appears (for example, hold Option during startup until Startup Manager appears). Note: If a startup function doesn’t work and you use a third-party keyboard, try again with an Apple keyboard.

Option Display all bootable volumes (Startup Manager)
Shift Start up in Safe Mode
Left Shift Prevent automatic login
C Start from bootable media (DVD, CD, USB thumb drive, and so forth)
T Start up in Target disk mode
N Start from a NetBoot server
X Force Mac OS X startup (if non-Mac OS X startup volumes are present)
D Use Apple Hardware Test
Command-R Use OS X Recovery (OS X Lion or later)
Command-V Start up in Verbose Mode
Command-S Start up in Single User Mode
Command-Option-P-R Reset NVRAM / parameter RAM
Hold down the Media Eject (⏏) key or F12 key, or mouse or trackpad button Eject removable discs

 

Sleep and shut down shortcuts

 

Power button – OS X Mavericks Tap to power on. Once powered on, tap to wake or sleep.
Hold down the power button for 1.5 seconds – OS X Mavericks Show restart / sleep / shutdown dialog
Hold down the power button for 5 seconds Force the Mac to power off
Command-Control-power button Force the Mac to restart
Control-Media Eject (⏏) Show restart / sleep / shutdown dialog
Command-Option-Media Eject (⏏) Put the computer to sleep
Command-Control-Media Eject (⏏) Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open documents), then restart the computer
Command-Option-Control-Media Eject (⏏) Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes to open documents), then shut down the computer
Shift-Control-Media Eject (⏏) Put all displays to sleep

Finder keyboard shortcuts

Command-A Select all items in the front Finder window (or desktop if no window is open)
Command-Option-A Deselect all items
Command-Shift-A Open the Applications folder
Command-C Copy selected item/text to the Clipboard
Command-Shift-C Open the Computer window
Command-D Duplicate selected item
Command-Shift-D Open desktop folder
Command-E Eject
Command-F Find any matching Spotlight attribute
Command-Shift-F Find Spotlight file name matches
Command-Option-F Navigate to the search field in an already-open Spotlight window
Command-Shift-G Go to Folder
Command-Shift-H Open the Home folder of the currently logged-in user account
Command-Shift-Control-T Add to Dock
Command-I Get Info
Command-Option-I Show Inspector
Command-Control-I Get Summary Info
Command-Shift-I Open iDisk
Command-J Show View Options
Command-K Connect to Server
Command-Shift-K Open Network window
Command-L Make alias of the selected item
Command-M Minimize window
Command-Option-M Minimize all windows
Command-N New Finder window
Command-Shift-N New folder
Command-Option-N New Smart Folder
Command-O Open selected item
Command-Shift-Q Log Out
Command-Shift-Option-Q Log Out immediately
Command-R Show original (of alias)
Command-T Add to Sidebar
Command-Shift-T Add to Favorites
Command-Option-T Hide Toolbar / Show Toolbar in Finder windows
Command-Shift-U Open Utilities folder
Command-V Paste
Command-W Close window
Command-Option-W Close all windows
Command-X Cut
Command-Option-Y Slideshow (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)
Command-Z Undo / Redo
Command-1 View as Icon
Command-2 View as List
Command-3 View as Columns
Command-4 View as Cover Flow (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)
Command-Comma (,) Open Finder preferences
Command-Accent (`) (the Accent key above Tab key on a US English keyboard layout) Cycle through open Finder windows
Command-Shift-Question Mark (?) Open Mac Help
Command-Left Bracket ([) Go to the previous folder
Command-Right Bracket (]) Go to the next folder
Command-Up Arrow Open the folder that contains the current folder
Command-Control-Up Arrow Open the folder that contains the current folder in a new window
Command-Down Arrow Open highlighted item
Command-Shift-Up Arrow Make the desktop active
Right Arrow (in List view) Open the selected folder
Left Arrow (in List view) Close the selected folder
Option-click the disclosure triangle (in List view) Open all folders within the selected folder
Option–double-click Open a folder in a separate window, closing the current window
Command–double-click Open a folder in a separate window
Command-click the window title See the folders that contain the current window
Command-Tab Switch application–cycle forward
Command-Shift-Tab Switch application–cycle backward
Command-Delete Move to Trash
Command-Shift-Delete Empty Trash
Command-Shift-Option-Delete Empty Trash without confirmation dialog
Space bar (or Command-Y) Quick Look (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)
Command key while dragging Move dragged item to other volume/location (pointer icon changes while key is held–see this article)
Option key while dragging Copy dragged item (pointer icon changes while key is held–see this article)
Command-Option key combination while dragging Make alias of dragged item (pointer icon changes while key is held–see this article)

Application and other OS X shortcuts

Note: Some applications may not support all of the following application key combinations.

Command-Space bar Show or hide the Spotlight search field (if multiple languages are installed, may rotate through enabled script systems)
Control-A Move to beginning of line/paragraph
Control-B Move one character backward
Control-D Delete the character in front of the cursor
Control-E Move to end of line/paragraph
Control-F Move one character forward
Control-H Delete the character behind the cursor
Control-K Delete from the character in front of the cursor to the end of the line/paragraph
Control-L Center the cursor/selection in the visible area
Control-N Move down one line
Control-O Insert a new line after the cursor
Control-P Move up one line
Control-T Transpose the character behind the cursor and the character in front of the cursor
Control-V Move down one page
Option-Delete Delete the word that is left of the cursor, as well as any spaces or punctuation after the word
Command-Option-Space bar Show the Spotlight search results window (if multiple languages are installed, may rotate through keyboard layouts and input methods within a script)
Command-Tab Move forward to the next most recently used application in a list of open applications
Command-Shift-Tab Move backward through a list of open applications (sorted by recent use)
Shift-Tab Navigate through controls in a reverse direction
Control-Tab Move focus to the next grouping of controls in a dialog or the next table (when Tab moves to the next cell)
Shift-Control-Tab Move focus to the previous grouping of controls
Command-esc Open Front Row (if installed)
Option-Media Eject (⏏) Eject from secondary optical media drive (if one is installed)
Fn-Delete Forward Delete (on a portable Mac’s built-in keyboard)
Command-F1 Toggles “Mirror Displays” for multi-monitor configurations
Command-F2 Toggle Target Display Mode
Command-F3 Show Desktop
Command-F5 Toggle VoiceOver On / Off
Option-F1 or F2 Opens “Displays” System Preference
Option-F3 or F4 Opens “Mission Control” System Preference
Option-F10 or F11 or F12 Opens “Sound” System Preference
Control-F3 App Exposé
Shift-Control-F6 Move focus to the previous panel
Control-F7 Temporarily override the current keyboard access mode in windows and dialogs
Control-F8 Move to the status menus in the menu bar
F9 Tile or untile all open windows
F10 Tile or untile all open windows in the currently active application
F11 Hide or show all open windows
F12 Hide or display Dashboard
Command-Accent (`) Activate the next open window in the frontmost application
Command-Shift-Accent (`) Activate the previous open window in the frontmost application
Command-Option-Accent (`) Move focus to the window drawer
Command-Minus (–) Decrease the size of the selected item
Command-{ Left-align a selection
Command-} Right-align a selection
Command-| Center-align a selection
Command-Colon (:) Display the Spelling window
Command-Semicolon (;) Find misspelled words in the document
Command-Comma (,) Open the front application’s preferences window (if it supports this keyboard shortcut)
Command-Option-Control-Comma (,) Decrease screen contrast
Command-Option-Control-Period (.) Increase screen contrast
Command-Question Mark (?) Open the application’s help in Help Viewer
Command-Option-/ Turn font smoothing on or off
Command-Shift-= Increase the size of the selected item
Command-Shift-3 Capture the screen to a file
Command-Shift-Control-3 Capture the screen to the Clipboard
Command-Shift-4 Capture a selection to a file
Command-Shift-Control-4 Capture a selection to the Clipboard
Command-A Highlight every item in a document or window, or all characters in a text field
Command-B Boldface the selected text or toggle boldfaced text on and off
Command-C Copy the selected data to the Clipboard
Command-Shift-C Display the Colors window
Command-Option-C Copy the style of the selected text
Command-Control-C Copy the formatting settings of the selected item and store on the Clipboard
Command-Option-D Show or hide the Dock
Command-Control-D Display the definition of the selected word in the Dictionary application
Command-D Selects the Desktop folder in Open and Save dialogs
or
Selects “Don’t Save” in dialogs that contain a Don’t Save button, in Mac OS X v10.6.8 and earlier
Command-Delete Selects “Don’t Save” in dialogs that contain a Don’t Save button, in OS X Lion and Mountain Lion
Command-E Use the selection for a find
Command-F Open a Find window
Command-Option-F Move to the search field control
Command-G Find the next occurrence of the selection
Command-Shift-G Find the previous occurrence of the selection
Command-H Hide the windows of the currently running application
Command-Option-H Hide the windows of all other running applications
Command-I Italicize the selected text or toggle italic text on or off
Command-Option-I Display an inspector window
Command-J Scroll to a selection
Command-M Minimize the active window to the Dock
Command-Option-M Minimize all windows of the active application to the Dock
Command-N Create a new document in the frontmost application
Command-O Display a dialog for choosing a document to open in the frontmost application
Command-P Display the Print dialog
Command-Shift-P Display a dialog for specifying printing parameters (Page Setup)
Command-Q Quit the frontmost application
Command-S Save the active document
Command-Shift-S Display the Save As dialog
Command-T Display the Fonts window
Command-Option-T Show or hide a toolbar
Command-U Underline the selected text or turn underlining on or off
Command-V Paste the Clipboard contents at the insertion point
Command-Option-V Apply the style of one object to the selected object (Paste Style)
Command-Shift-Option-V Apply the style of the surrounding text to the inserted object (Paste and Match Style)
Command-Control-V Apply formatting settings to the selected object (Paste Ruler Command)
Command-W Close the frontmost window
Command-Shift-W Close a file and its associated windows
Command-Option-W Close all windows in the application without quitting it
Command-X Remove the selection and store in the Clipboard
Command-Z Undo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Undos)
Command-Shift-Z Redo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Redos)
Control-Right Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Control-Left Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Control-Down Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Control-Up Arrow Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Command-Right Arrow Move the text insertion point to the end of the current line
Command-Left Arrow Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the current line
Command-Down Arrow Move the text insertion point to the end of the document
Command-Up Arrow Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the document
Option-Right Arrow Move the text insertion point to the end of the next word
Option-Left Arrow Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the previous word
Command-Shift-Right Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the end of the current line (*)
Command-Shift-Left Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the beginning of the current line (*)
Shift-Right Arrow Extend text selection one character to the right (*)
Shift-Left Arrow Extend text selection one character to the left (*)
Command-Shift-Up Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the beginning of the document (*)
Command-Shift-Down Arrow Select text between the insertion point and the end of the document (*)
Shift-Up Arrow Extend text selection to the line above, to the nearest character boundary at the same horizontal location (*)
Shift-Down Arrow Extend text selection to the line below, to the nearest character boundary at the same horizontal location (*)
Shift-Option-Right Arrow Extend text selection to the end of the current word, then to the end of the following word if pressed again (*)
Shift-Option-Left Arrow Extend text selection to the beginning of the current word, then to the beginning of the following word if pressed again (*)
Shift-Option-Down Arrow Extend text selection to the end of the current paragraph, then to the end of the following paragraph if pressed again (*)
Shift-Option-Up Arrow Extend text selection to the beginning of the current paragraph, then to the beginning of the following paragraph if pressed again (*)
Control-Space bar Toggle between the current and previous input sources
Option-Control-Space bar Toggle through all enabled input sources
Command-Option-esc Force Quit
Command-Shift-Option-Esc (hold for three seconds) Force Quit the front-most application (Mac OS X v10.5 or later)
Command-Left Bracket ([) Previous browser webpage
Command-Right Bracket (]) Next browser webpage

*Note: If no text is selected, the extension begins at the insertion point. If text is selected by dragging, then the extension begins at the selection boundary. Reversing the direction of the selection deselects the appropriate unit.

Full keyboard access lets you use your keyboard to navigate and interact with items on the screen. Use these shortcuts to select and adjust controls such as text fields and sliders.

Tab Move to the next control
Shift-Tab Move to the previous control
Control-Tab Move to the next control when a text field is selected
Arrow keys Move to the adjacent item in a list, tab group, or menu
or
Move sliders and adjusters (vertical up and down arrows used to increase and decrease values)
Control-Arrow keys Move to a control adjacent to the text field
Space bar Select the highlighted menu item
Return or Enter Click the default button or perform the default action
Esc Click the Cancel button
or
Close a menu without choosing an item

You can navigate the menus in the menu bar without using a mouse or trackpad. To put the focus in the menu bar, press Control-F2 (Fn-Control-F2 on portable keyboards). Then use the key combinations listed below.

Left Arrow and Right Arrow Move from menu to menu
Return Open a selected menu
Up Arrow and Down Arrow Move to menu items in the selected menu
Type the menu item’s name Jump to a menu item in the selected menu
Return Select a menu item

for more shortcuts..clickhere

Source: http://support.apple.com/kb/ht1343

 

 

FireChat Network-Free Chat Could Be Big. Its not a whatsapp clone.

FireChat is one of the most interesting new communications products to arrive in the past year. Mostly because it’s not another take on standard messaging. By which I mean it’s not another WhatsApp clone.

FireChat is a hyperlocal chat tool that allows smartphones to connect to each other directly, without the need for WiFi hotspots or cellular networks. As long as two devices (or a bunch of devices in a small space) can connect to one another, using Bluetooth or their WiFi radios, they’ll be able to chat. (Typically, every communication your smartphone gets from another smartphone comes through an intermediary device or service. Not so with FireChat.)

The app functions as a local chatroom. You choose a username — no password required — and you can talk to anyone who is nearby.

The app came out for iPhones in late March, and today there’s an Android version available. You should try it. It’s really new.

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But does it matter? Outside of limited cases, like text chatting in a subway where there’s no network coverage, is FireChat important?

I think it is, for two reasons, although both have major caveats.

The unjammable network?
The first is the capability of FireChat to operate when networks are not available or are actively being blocked. Twitter banned by your country’s government? Cellular network towers knocked down by a hurricane? Get on FireChat and you can still communicate.

Now, at the moment, devices running FireChat can communicate only with other devices they can connect to directly using their Bluetooth or WiFi radios, and that range is severely limited. FireChat can talk to devices in an area that’s pretty much room-sized, no bigger. However, the company that makes FireChat also makes mesh networking technology, in which devices communicating with one another can also pass along data for other devices, bucket-brigade style. Chat messages can hop from one device through other devices before reaching their destination. This could, theoretically, make a system like FireChat work in much larger spaces than the tiny local circles it’s now limited to.

Download links:
FireChat for iPhone
FireChat for Android 

This Invention From India Is Going to Change The Way We Live Forever!

Rohildev from Kerala, is the creator of this unique invention called Fin and it could revolutionize the way we interact with technology. His crowd funding  initiative for his project was an overwhelming success and managed to raise over $200,000 USD from over 2000 people to fine tune and develop this amazing invention.

25-india-based-wearable-device-fin-experiencing-massive-response-boasts

Watch the video for more details..

Sources:

http://www.gizbot.com/tech-biz/india-based-wearable-device-fin-experiencing-massive-response-boasts-016320.html

Augmented Reality

Augmented reality (AR) is a live, copy, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. Augmented Reality combines 2 words to deal with, “augmented” means enhanced or increased and “reality”, which together simply means enhanced reality. By using hardwares or tools such as your smartphones you can discover such beneficial details in the form of visual data imagery that are not visible to you normally.

Hardware Required

Hardware components for augmented reality are: processor, display, sensors and input devices. Modern mobile computing devices like smartphones and tablet computers contain these elements which often include a camera and MEMS sensors such as accelerometer, GPS, and solid state compass, making them suitable AR platforms

Real World Example:

The listed apps below are there in your android / iphone devices to make you understand what it can do with the camera, GPS and other sensors to impress you. Let’s say you go to Beijing, a well-known city in China. Now you want to find out any vegetarian restaurant there (for example), but as everything is written in chinese which you do not understand and they can’t understand your English ;), this makes you to unable to find any way. That time, you take out your smartphone, connect to the internet and launch an app. This app looks with the rear camera and shows you what you couldn’t figure it out in actual view. You point your camera to next to next buildings and it would say “non vegetarian restaurant”…”hotel”….”vegetarian restaurant” and there you get the right one to get you forward. Now, this is called augmented reality adding information to your reality in many ways.

AcrossAir

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Platform: iOS

Augmented reality browser is an amazing 3D navigator to help you reach your location easily. Hold your smartphone upright and look around with your camera to view restaurants, hotels, landmarks, cinemas and other geo tagged entries. Floating image balloons on screen display information of the chosen picture.Hold it horizontally to switch to Google Maps to show your position and pin it to view it later or find your parked vehicle.

Google Goggles

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Platform: Android, iOS

Amazing Google app uses image recognition technology to deliver information about various logos, landmarks, barcodes or QR codes. Add contacts with business cards, read novel summaries by scanning the title, all by taking its picture.

iOnRoad Augmented Driving

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Platform: Android, iOS

Ultimate road safety app, helps you with navigation on road trips and keeps you safe preventing collision on the roads ahead.

Uses smartphone camera, GPS and other sensors to detect for getting off the road or moving too close to another vehicle, by generating an audio-visual warning.

Simply mount your smartphone on windshield and iOnRoad starts automatically as you move. It detects when and where you are parked and helps you later to reach your parked car with the navigation and a clicked photo of the parked area.

Augmented Car Finder

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Platform: iOS

As name suggests, its a car finder app. Finding your car in a parking lot or at any other crowded areas seems a tough task when you’re in a great hurry.

 

Augment

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Platform:  Android

Augment gets you to visualise 3D objects like furniture, books, characters in your desired rooms, halls and other places with the camera. Try new settings in your room without actually rearranging them.

Android Apps:

You can try augmented android app for your smartphone

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Willing to learn??

Being a quite popular buzz word, augmented reality can be built with some distinct algorithms which can be learnt separately. Usually it covers:

  •          Planar object detection (can be a marker or previously trained object). SURF/SIFT/FAST descriptors, RANSAC for homography matrix calculation
  •          store trained objects in DB (KD-trees)
  •          camera position estimation
  •          augmenting 3D model with custom objects (OpenGL)

To dive into this subject-> http://dev.metaio.com/sdk/getting-started/